JIPI
Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Ciri Anatomi, Morfologi Serat, dan Sifat Fisis Tiga Jenis Lesser-Used Wood Species Asal Kalimantan Utara, Indonesia

  • Sarah Augustina Sekolah Pascasarjana, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
  • Imam Wahyudi Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
  • I Wayan Darmawan Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
  • Jamaludin Malik Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan, Gunung Batu St No.5, Gunungbatu, Bogor 16118

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze anatomical characteristics, fiber morphology, and several important physical properties of nyatoh (Palaquium lanceolatum), pisang putih (Sindora walichii), and sepetir (Mezzettia leptopoda) wood from North Kalimantan in order to support the proper utilization of each wood species. All parameters were analyzed using their standard procedures. Results showed that anatomical characteristics of nyatoh wood are the vessels predominantly are in radial multiples and contained tyloses, ray parenchyma is mostly uniseriate and even, while axial parenchyma is in narrow tangential line with irregularly spaced. For pisang putih wood, the vessels are exclusively solitary, ray parenchyma of two distinct sizes, while axial parenchyma are in continuous tangential bands with irregularly spaced. In case of sepetir wood, the vessel is in radial and diagonal patterns, rays tend to have two different sizes, axial parenchyma is vasicentric to aliform, and has the axial resin canals in continuous tangential bands. Average values of fiber length and fiber wall thickness are 1904 and 3.61 µm (nyatoh), 1708 and 4.51 µm (pisang putih), and 1337 and 3.39 µm (sepetir), respectively; while the mean values of specific gravity and T/R-ratio are 0.42 and 1.41 (nyatoh), 0.37 and 2.34 (pisang putih), and 0.32 and 1.40 (sepetir), respectively. Nyatoh wood is categorized as the Strength Class of III, while pisang putih and sepetir woods are categorized as the Strength Class of IV. Compared to pisang putih and sepetir woods, nyatoh wood is more potential for pulp, paper, and furniture manufacturing.

Keywords: anatomical characteristics, fiber morphology, lesser-used wood species, physical properties

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdurohim S, Mandang YI, Sutisna U. 2004. Atlas Kayu Indonesia Jilid III. Bogor (ID): Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.

Ahmed SA, Chun SK. 2009. Observation of liquid permeability related to anatomical characteristics in Samanea saman. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 33: 155163.

Amoo K, Onilude M A, Omoniyi T E. 2016. Fibre characteristics of paper and paper egg tray used in Southwest Nigeria. Internati International Journal of Engine Research and Reviews. 4 (4): 5360.

Ashori A, Nourbakhsh A. 2009. Studies on Iranian cultivated paulownia-a potential source of fibrous raw material for paper industry. Europia Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 67: 323327. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00107-009-0326-0

Augustina S. 2019. Sifat dasar tiga jenis kayu lesser-used species dan peningkatan mutunya melalui teknik densifikasi. [Tesis]. Bogor (ID): IPB University.

Boer E, Ella AB. 2000. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(18). Plant Producing Exudates. Leiden (NL): Backhuys Publishers.

Bossu J, Beauchene J, Estevez Y, Duplals C, Clair B. 2016. New insight on wood dimensional stability influenced by secondary metabolites: The case of a fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis Aubl. Plos One. 11(3): 117. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0150777

Bowyer JL, Shmulsky R, Haygreen JG. 2003. Hasil Hutan dan Ilmu Kayu Suatu Pengantar, Terjemahan [Third Edition]. Yogyakarta (ID): Gadjah Mada University Press.

[BSI] British Standard. 1957. Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimens of Timber. BS 373:1957. London (UK): British Standard Institute.

[BSN] Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 1989. Kayu untuk mebel, syarat sifat fisik dan mekanik. SNI 01-0608-1989. Jakarta (ID): Badan Standarisasi Nasional.

Cahyono TD, Wahyudi I, Priadi T, Febrianto F, Bahtiar ET, Novriyanti E. 2016. Analysis on Wood Quality, Geometry Factor, and Their Effects on Lathe Check of Samama (Anthocephalus macrophyllus) Veneer. Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology. 44(2): 828841. https://doi.org/ 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.6.828

Chowdhury MdQ, Ishiguri F, Hiraiwa T, Matsumoto K, Takashima Y, Lizuka K, Yokota S, Yoshizawa N. 2012. Variation in anatomical properties and correlations with wood density and compressive strength in Casuarina equisetifolia growing in Bangladesh. Australian Forestry. 75(2): 9599. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.2012.10676390

Clair B, Gril J, Di Renzo F, Yamamoto H, Quignard F. 2008. Characterization of a gel in the cell wall to elucidate the paradoxical shringkage of tension wood. Biomacromolecules. 9 (2): 494498. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm700987q

Damayanti R, Mandang YI, Waluyo TK. 2007. Struktur anatomi dan kualitas serat batang kemenyan (Styrax spp.) dari Sumatera Utara. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan 25(3): 273290. https:// doi.org/10.20886/jphh.2007.25.3.273-290

Damayanti R, Rulliaty S. 2010 Anatomical properties and fiber quality of five potential commercial wood species from Cianjur, West Java. Journal of Forestry Research. 7(1): 5369. https://d oi.org/10.20886/ijfr.2010.7.1.53-69

Din H, Metali F, Sukri RS. 2015. Tree diversity and community composition of tutong white sands, Brunei Darussalam: A rare tropical heat forest ecosystem. Internasional Journal of Ecology. 2015(10). https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/807876

Emerhi E A. 2012. Variations in anatomical properties of Rhizophora racemosa (leechm) and Rhizophora harrisonii (g. mey) in a Nigerian mangrove forest ecosystem. International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion. 2(2): 8996.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1984. Lesser-known tropical wood species. Rome (IT): FAO Forestry Paper 36.

Fatriasari W, Supriyanto, Iswanto AH. 2015. The kraft pulp and paper properties of sweet sorghum bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench). Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences. 47(2): 149159. https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol. sci.2015.47.2.4

Florensius M, Herawatiningsih R, Dewantara I. 2018. Ekologi dan potensi pohon nyatoh (Palaquium spp.) di hutan sekunder areal IUPHHK-HTI PT. Bhatara Alam Lestari Kabupaten Mempawah. Jurnal Hutan Lestari. 6(2): 311317.

[FPL] Forest Products Laboratory. 2010. Wood Handbook-Wood as an engineering material. General Technical Report FPL-GTR-190. Madison (US): Departement of Agriculture, Forest Service, FPL.

[FPRDI-ITTO] Forest Products Research and Development Institute-International Tropical Timber Organization. 1997. Manual on The Properties and Uses of Lesser-Used Species of Philippine Timbers. Laguna (PHL): FPRDI-ITTO Project.

Green DW, Begel M, Nelson W. 2006. Janka Hardness Using Nonstandard Specimens. Madison (US): FPL. https://doi.org/10.2737/FPL-RN-303

Hamdan S, Jusoh I, Rahman MdR, de Juan M. 2016. Acoustic properties of Syzygium sp., Dialium sp., Gymnostoma sp., and Sindora sp. wood. BioResources. 11(3): 59415948. https:// doi.org/10.15376/biores.11.3.5941-5948

Handayani T. 2018. Diversity, potential and conservation of Annonaceae in Bogor Botanic Gardens, Indonesia. Biodiversitas. 19(2): 591603. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d190230

IAWA. 2008. Identifikasi Kayu: Ciri Mikroskopis Untuk Identifikasi Kayu Daun Lebar. Bogor (ID): Pustekolah.

Istikowati WT, Aiso H, Sunardi, Sutiya B, Ishiguri F, Ohshima J, Lizuka K, Yokoya S. 2016. Wood, chemical, and pulp properties of wood from less-utilized fast-growing tree species found in naturally regenerated secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 36(4): 250258. https:// doi.org/10.1080/02773813.2015.1124121

[ITTO] International Tropical Timber Organization. 2019. Tropical timber-lesser used species [internet]. [diacu 2020 16 Juli]. Tersedia dari: http://www.tropicaltimber.info/specie/ mempisang-mezzettia-parviflora.

[ITTO] International Tropical Timber Organization. 2019. Tropical timber-lesser used species [internet]. [diacu 2020 16 Juli]. Tersedia dari: http://www.tropicaltimber.info/specie/ sepetir-sindora-coriacea.

Koek-Noorman J, Westra LYT. 2012. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 169: 135189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01237.x

Mandang YI, Suhaendra H. 2003. Sifat-sifat kayu nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium Burck.) sehubungan dengan kemungkinan penggunaannya sebagai bahan bilah pensil. Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan. 21(1): 114.

Mardikanto TR, Karlinasari L, Bahtiar ET. 2011. Sifat Mekanis Kayu. Bogor (ID): IPB Press.

Martawijaya A, Kartasujana I, Mandang YI, Prawira SA, Kadir K. 1989. Atlas Kayu Indonesia Jilid II. Bogor (ID): Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.

Martawijaya A, Kartasujana I, Kadir K, Prawira SA. 2005. Atlas Kayu Indonesia Jilid I. Bogor (ID): Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.

Ogata K, Fujii T, Abe H, Haas P. 2008. Identification of the Timbers of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Tsukuba (JP): Kaiseisha Press. https:// doi.org/10.1515/HF.2008.132

Ona T, Sonoda T, Ito K, Shibata M, Tamai Y, Kojima Y, Ohshima J, Yokota S, Yoshizawa N. 2001. Investigation of relationships between cell and pulp properties in Eucalyptus by examination of within-tree property variations. Wood Science and Technology. 35: 229243. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s002260100090

Peck EC. 1957. How wood shrinks and swells. Forest Products Journal. 7(7): 235244.

Peng H, Jiang J, Zhan T, Lu J. 2016. Influence of density and equilibrium moisture content on the hardness anisotropy of wood. Forest Products Journal. 66(78): 443452. https://doi.org/ 10.13073/FPJ-D-15-00072

[PKKI-NI5]. 1961. Peraturan Konstruksi Kayu Indonesia. Jakarta (ID): Yayasan Dana Normalisasi Indonesia.

Porombi S, Umar H, Taha I. 2017. Pertumbuhan cabutan anakan alam nyatoh (Palaquium sp.) setelah disimpan pada wadah yang berbeda. Warta Rimba. 5(1): 4954.

Rulliaty S. 1994. Wood quality indicators as estimator of juvenile wood in Mahagony (Swietenia macropylla King) from forest plantation in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. [Tesis]. Los Banos (PH): UPLB.

Seng OD. 1990. Berat Jenis dari Jenis-jenis Kayu Indonesia dan Pengertian Beratnya Kayu un

tuk Keperluan Praktek. Pengumuman No.13. Bogor (ID): Lembaga Penelitian Hasil Hutan.

Sharma M, Sharma CL, Kumar YB. 2013. Evaluation of fiber characteristics in some weeds of Arunachal Pradesh, India for pulp and paper making. Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 1(3):1521.

Shukla SR, Kamdem DP. 2010. Dimensional stability of nine tropical hardwood from Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 22 (4): 389396.

Soijonkari-Pahlaka K. 2001. Non-wood plants as raw material for pulp and paper. [Disertation]. Jokioinen (FIN): University of Helsinki. https:// doi.org/10.23986/afsci.5707

Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, 1998. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(3). Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden (NL): Backhuys Publishers.

Wahyudi I. 2013. Hubungan struktur anatomi kayu dengan sifat kayu, kegunaan dan pengolahannya. Diskusi Litbang Anatomi Kayu Indonesia. Bogor 34 Juni 2013. Bogor (ID): Asosiasi Anatomi Kayu Indonesia. hlm. 112.

Wasis B, Baskara H. 2013. Pertumbuhan semai nyatoh pada media tailing PT. Antam unit bisnis Pongkor pada penambangan arang tempurung kelapa dan pupuk kompos bokashi. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika. 4(1): 15.

Winandy JE. 1994. Wood Properties. Di dalam Arntzen CJ, Editor. Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science. Orlando (US): Academic Press. hlm. 549561.

Yahya R, Sugiyama J, Silsia D, Gril J. 2010. Some anatomical features of an Acacia Hybrid, A. mangium and A. auriculiformis grown in Indonesia with regard to pulp yield and paper strength. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 22(3): 343351.

Published
2020-10-27
How to Cite
Augustina, S., Wahyudi, I., Darmawan, I. W., & Malik, J. (2020). Ciri Anatomi, Morfologi Serat, dan Sifat Fisis Tiga Jenis Lesser-Used Wood Species Asal Kalimantan Utara, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 25(4), 599-609. https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.25.4.599

Most read articles by the same author(s)