Vol. 3 No. 1 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
The objective of this research was to analyze the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil trunk. The result showed that in term of the vertical direction the lower part of stem had better physical (density, moisture content and shrinkage) and mechanical (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, hardness, compressive and tensile strength parallel to grain) properties compared with medium and upper end part. In the horizontal direction the edge part of trunk had better physical and mechanical properties than medium and center part.
Nowadays wood supplies from natural forest are decreasing. Many efforts had been done to overcome this problem. One of them was by developing plantation forest, however it has not optimized yet because of many problems. Lately wood supplies were fulfilled by community forest woods. One of them is cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.). The research objective was to gain information on anatomical, physical, mechanical and chemical properties of C. burmanni Blume and to analyse its utilization based on these properties. Wood samples used were three logs of 15 years old with 25 cm diameter. It showed that wood texture was fine, between sapwood and heartwood was not distinguished well. Specific gravity was 0.56, while MOE, MOR, and compressive parallel to grain were 55.731 kg/cm2, 742 kg/cm2, and 392 kg/cm2, respectivelly. Solubility in ethanol benzene was 4.07%, cellulose content was 48.53%, hemicellulose was 15.71% and lignin was 22.72%. Based on those properties, it could be recommended that C. burmanni wood was suitable enough for furniture, pulp, and light construction purposes.
Keywords : community forest, Cinnanomum burmanii Blume, wood properties, wood utilization.
Penggunaan kertas bekas seperti karton gelombang atau old corrugated container (OCC) dapat membantu konservasi sumberdaya alam dan menjaga mutu lingkungan hidup. Sifat kekuatan pulp-nya yang rendah secara teoretis dapat ditingkatkan melalui substitusi dengan pulp asli. Bambu merupakan sumber potensial untuk menghasilkan pulp substitusi ini. Dalam penelitian ini bambu tali (Gigantochloa apus) berumur 2 tahun dibuat pulp melalui proses soda panas, yang kemudian dipergunakan untuk mensubstitusi pulp OCC dengan kadar 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 dan 100%. Pulp campurannya kemudian diputihkan dengan metode pemutihan elemental chlorine free (ECF) DEDP (chlorine dioxide - alkaline extraction - chlorine dioxide - hydrogen peroxide). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai indeks tarik tertinggi (30,84 Nm/g) diperoleh dari komposisi pulp bambu : karton (B/K) = 30/70. Nilai indeks sobek dan derajat putih tertinggi dihasilkan oleh komposisi B/K = 100/0 yang masing-masing sebesar 8,45 N.m2/kg dan 77,02%. Nilai indeks retak tertinggi dihasilkan oleh komposisi B/K = 50/50. Komposisi pulp bamboo dan pulp OCC secara nyata mempengaruhi sifat-sifat pulp campuran. Komposisi optimal untuk menghasilkan sifat kekuatan dan sifat optic terbaik diperoleh dari B/K = 70/30.
Keywords : Gigantochloa apus, OCC, recycled pulp, substitution
Connection is the weakest point of the structural building system. Structural construction building system must ensure that there is only a tensile force or just axial compression that is working on the connection. Data on the lateral design values (Z) double shear connection wood beam with nails of steel side plates for various types of tropical Indonesian wood have not studied much. Average moisture content (MC) for the main member varies from 13.3 to 22.5% while average specific gravity (r) from 0.27 to 0.76 and then wood density from 0.31 to 0.89 g/cm3. From this average value of MC, SG and wood density the lowest is sengon and the highest is rasamala wood. Average allowable load of compression parallel to grain ( ) and parallel tensile ( )is sengon, but the highest is bangkirai. There is a general tendency that and is linier to r of those wood. is approximately 2 times greater than its . The number of nail (4-10 pieces) did not give effect of average Z, but with the nail diameter 4.1 to 5.2 mm Z increased significantly and this value decreased on 5.5 mm diameter nail. Average Z also increases with increasing of ρ for displacement 1.50 mm (Indonesian Standard PKKI NI-5 1961)) and 5.0 mm (breaking load). The increasing of Z happens because ρ effect. At 5.0 mm displacement the increase of Z is not as sharp as that of 1.5 mm. Power regression type is the best equation to predict Z of wood density for several diameters of nails.
Keywords : Allowable load of tensile parallel to grain, density, displacement, double shear connection, lateral design values
Biodeterioration should be controlled properly for efficient and sustainable forest products (woods) utilization. This research aimed to know the distribution of wood biodeterioration in house structure; the biodeterioration intensity and its economic loss in Lembang, Bogor, Serang and North Jakarta, which were different in temperature and humidity. The survey was conducted to 200 houses in the four places. The result showed that wood biodeterioration occured in most (90%) house buildings. Doors, windows and roof structures were the most frequent attacked by biodeterioration agents. Decay fungi attacked wet wooden house components, mainly lisplank and ceiling, whereas termites attacked mainly doors, windows, poles and walls. The volume of damaged wooden house components in Lembang and Bogor were higher than those in the warmer and drier regions, Serang and North Jakarta. The average economic loss due to wood biodeterioration in a houses was about Rp28 000/year. However the economic loss per region was quite high, about two billion rupiahs per year in Serang and more than eight billion rupiahs in Bogor City.
Keywords : Biodeterioration, decay fungi, termites, beetles, residential buildings
This paper presents the effect of extractive and abrasive material of tropical timber (Damar Laut, Mersawa, and Oil Palm wood) and of composite products (Fiber Board and Cement Board) on the wearing of high speed steel and tungsten carbide cutting tools. The extractive content provides a significant contribution on the chemical wearing of the cutting tools. Oil palm wood and Mersawa wood contain extractives which are more corrosive compared to other wood species tested. Mechanical wear resistance is influenced by the abrasive material contained in the wood, especially silica, both in wood and wood composite products. Mersawa wood caused the cutting tools wear faster than other types of solid wood. Cement board as a composite product caused the damaged of the cutting edge of high speed steel tool due to high abrasive materials contained in the the cement board. Tungsten carbide tool has higher wear resistance than high speed steel tool.
Keywords : wear resistance, high speed steel, tungsten carbide, silica, extractive
The purpose of this study was to analyze the phisycal and mechanical properties of binderless particleboard using bamboo as raw materials. Andong bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae) used in this study was taken from Bogor area. Bamboo was converted using hammer mill and air dried subsequently. The particle zise was passed of the 20 mesh screener. Three types pretreatment were used to prepare the particle, namely : 1) water boiling for 30 and 60 minutes, 2) oxydation using hydrogen peroxyde, and 3) combination of water boiling for 30 minutes and oxydation using hydrogen proxide. As a control, conventional particleboards using 10 % melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin based on dry particle weight was produced. The particle which has pretreated then utilized to produce binderless particleboard with board density of 0.75 g/cm3. The pressing conditions were 180 oC in temperature, 25 kgf/cm2 in pressure for 20 minutes. The board characteristics were tested according to JIS A 5908 2003. The results indicated that particleboard made from particle with oxydation pretreatment performed superior characteristics compared to those of particleboard made from particle only with water boiling pretreatment. Dimensional stability and modulus of elasticity of board with oxydation pretreatment were excellent. Its was superior compared to that of conventional particleboard using melamine formaldehyde as adhesive.
Keywords : Bamboo, Binderless Particleboard, Oxydation, Hydrogen Peroxyde