The study aimed to analyze the potential of okra to reduction blood glucose and MDA liver in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Design experiment used in this study was pre and post test controlled group design. The first step of this study was analyzed bioactive compound of okra extract. The next step was administired orally of okra extract to control and diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin 50 mg/kgBW for 14 days. Sprague dawley rats were divided into six groups: normal control (N), diabetic control (DM), diabetic treated with green okra extract (GOE) with the dosage of 5 mg/kgBW quercetin and 10 mg/kgBW quercetin, diabetes treated with purple okra extract (POE) with the dosage of 5 mg/kgBW quercetin and 10 mg/kgBW quercetin. Blood glucose were measured each five days and malondialdehyde (MDA) liver in rats were measured in the end of intervention. The following results show that phenolic and quercetin of purple okra extract were higher (3.60%; 0.45 mg/g) than green okra extract (3.58%; 0.27 mg/g). Administration of GOE I, GOE II, POE I and POE II in diabetic rats showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level (115.25 mg/dl; 86 mg/dl; 180.75 mg/dl; 91 mg/dl) and improve level of MDA. These results suggest that intervention of okra extract based on quercetin compound show an antihyperglicemic potential and improve MDA level.
[ADA] American Diabetes Association. 2014. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 37(1):S81-S89.
Annie SK, Rajendran I, Punitha SR. 2005. Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 97(2):369-374.
Aouacheri O, Saka S, Krim M, Messadia A, Maidi I. 2014. The investigation of the oxidative stress-related parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Can J Diabetes 03(2):1-6.
Arapitsas P. 2008. Identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins. Food Chem110(4):1041-1045.
Aulanni’am R. Anna, Rahmah NL. The potency of sargassum duplicatum bory extract on inflammatory bowel disease therapy in rattus norvegicus. 2012. Journal of Life Sciences 6(2):144-154.
Babu PV, Liu D, Gilbert ER.2013. Recent advances in understanding the anti-diabetic actions of dietary flavonoids. J Nutr Biochem 24(11):1777-1789.
Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. 2013. Dietary polyphenols as potential nutraceuticals in management of diabetes: a review. J Diabetes Metab Disord 12(43):1-9.
Bouayed J, Bohn T. 2010. Exogenous antioxidants-Double-edged swords in cellular redox state: Health beneficial effects at physiologic doses versus deleterious efects at high doses. Oxid Med Cell Longev 3(4): 228-237.
Damayanthi E, Kusumorini N, Kustiyah L, Pontjo B, Rimbawan, Bait Y, Ritonga D, Suprihatini R, Hypoglicemic Activity of Black Tea as good a Green Tea but better than Mulberry Leaf Tea on Diabetic Rats. inside Mao Z, He Q, Xiao H, editor. GlobalHealth Conference Proceedings. presented in : Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH), The 45th Annual Conference 2013 Oct 24-27. Wuhan, China. Wuhan 223.
du Thie G, Crozier A. 2000. Plant derived phenolic antioxidants. Clin Nutr Metab 11(1):43-47.
Fan S, Guo L, Zhang Y, Sun Q, Yang B, Huang C. 2014. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. J Nutr Biochem 25(7):702-709.
Fuhrman B, Aviram M. 2001. Flavonoids protect LDl from oxidation and attenuate atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 12(1):41-48.
Gomes IB, Porto Ml, Santos MC, Campagnaro BP, Gava LA, Pereira TM, Meyrelles SS, Vasquez SC. 2015. The protective effect of oral low-dose kuersetin on diabetic nephropathy in hypercholesterolemic mice. Front Physiol 34(7):236-247.
Gupta S, Aziz N, Sekhon L, Agarwal R, Mansour G, Li J, Agarwal A. 2009. Lipid peroxidetion and antioxidant status in preeclampsia, a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol
Hertog MGL et al. 1995. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Int Med 155(4):381-386.
Huang Z, Wang B, Eaves DH, Shikany JM, Pace RD. 2007. Phenolic compound profile of selected vegetables frequently consumed by African Americans in iwthe southeast United States. Food Chem 103(4):1395-1402.
[IDF] International Diabetes Federation. 2013. IDF diabetes atlas. 6th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.
Iwai K. 2008. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of polyphenols in brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63(4):163-169.
Iwasaki Y, Hirasawa T, Maruyama Y, Ishii Y, Ito R, Saito K, Umemura T, Nishikawa A, Nakazawa H. 2011. Effect of interaction between phenolic compounds and copper ion on antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities. Toxicology in Vitro 25(7):1320-1327.
Jung JY, Lim Y Moon MS, Kim JY, Kwon O. 2011. Onion peel extract ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab 18(8):1-8.
[Kemenkes RI] Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2013. Riset Kesehatan Dasar Tahun 2013. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.
Liao H, Liu H, Yuan K. 2012. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn. Pharmacognosy Magazine 8(29):12-15.
Moskaug J, Carlsen H, Myhrstad M, Blomhoff R. 2004. Molecular imaging of the biological effect of quercetin and quercetin-rich foods. Mech Ageing Dev 125(4):315-324.
Oboh G, Ademosun AO, Ayeni PO, Omojokun OS, Bello F. 2014. Comparative effect of kuersetin and rutin on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and some pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. Comp Clin Pathol 24(1):1-8.
Park CE, Kim MJ, Lee JH, Min BI, Bae H, Choe W. 2007. Resveratrol stimulates glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Mol Med 39(2):222-229.
Prior RL, Wu X, Gu L, Hager TJ. 2008. Whole berries versus berry anthocyanins: interactions with dietary fat kadars in the C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. J Agric Food Chem 56(3):647-653.
Sabitha V, Panneerselvam K, Ramachandran S. 2012. In vitro α-glucosidase dan α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects in aqueous extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. Asian Pacific J Tropical Biomedicine 2(1):S162-S164.
Sabitha V, Ramachandran S, Naveen KR, Panneerselvam K. 2013. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 3(3):397-402.
Sasaki R, Nishimura N, Hoshino H, Isa Y. 2007. Cyanidin 3-glucoside ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to downregulation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in diabetic mice. Biochem Pharmacol 74(11):1619-1627.
Scalbert A, Johnson IT, Saltmarsh M. 2005. Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am J Clin Nutr 81(1):215S-217S.
Shui G, Peng LL. 2004. An improved method for analysis of major antioxidant of Hibiscus escelntus Linn. J Chromatograhy A 104(1):17-24.
Spencer J, Kuhnle G, Williams R, Rice-Evans C. 2003. Intracellular metabolism and bioactivity of quercetin and its in vivo metabolites. Biochem J 372(1):173-181.
Tadera K, Minami Y, Takamatsu K, Matsuoka T. 2006. Inhibition of alphaglucosidase and alpha-amylase by flavonoids. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 52(2):149-153.
Tangvarasittichai S. 2015. Oxidative stress and T2DM. World J Diabetes 6(3):456-480.
Towler MC, Hardie DG. 2007. AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling. Circ Res 100(3):328-341.
Trini S, Rimbawan, Damanik R, Bintang M, Handharyani E. 2015. Efek Ekstrak Daun Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) Sebagai Antioksidan Pada Hati Tikus Diabetes. Prosiding Seminar Ilmiah Perhimpunan Biokimia & Biologi Molekuler Indonesia (PBBMI) 63-68.
Wedick NM, Pan A, Cassidy A, Rimm EB, Sampson L, Rosner B. 2012. Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 105(5):925-933.
Wein S, Behm N, Petersen RK. 2010. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR Gamma independent mechanism. Eur J Pharm Sci 41(1):16-22.
Wilms LC, Hollman PC, Boots AW, Kleinjans JC. 2005. Protection by quercetin and quercetin-rich fruit juice against induction of oxidative DNA damage and formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human lymphocytes. Mutat Res/Genetic Toxicol Environ Mutagen 582(1):155-162.
Xiao ZP, Peng ZY, Peng MJ, Yan WB, Ouyang YZ, Zhu HL. 2011. Flavonoids health benefits and their molecular mechanism. Mini Rev Med Chem 11(2):169-177
Yin P, Zhao S, Chen S, Liu J, Shi L, Wang X, Liu Y, Ma C. 2011. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenols from burs of Castanea mollissima Blume. Molecules 16(10):9764-9774.
Zhang B, Kang M, Xie Q, Xu B, Sun C, Chen K, Wu Y. 2011. Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect β cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation. J Agric Food Chem 59(2):537-545.