Application of alternate healthy eating index to assess diet quality in male workers

Pramita Ariawati Putri, Dodik Briawan, Ikeu Ekayanti


This study aimed to analyze diet quality of male workers. Study design was cross-sectional, involving 101 male workers of PT. Semen Indonesia Tuban, East Java aged 25-55 years old. Subjects were chosen using purposive sampling based on inclusion criterias. US adapted Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI) was used to assess diet quality that consists of 11 components. Components and portions were modified based on Indonesian Dietary Guidelines 2014. The result showed that grains and alcohol components had good score (10) and the lowest score was in sweetened beverages component (1.4). AHEI-score range from 45.1 to 95.7 and the mean was 69.5. More than half of workers (75.2%) diet quality was in need of improvement category (AHEI scores <76.2). Education level and working unit were correlated with diet quality (p<0.05). Workers diet quality in PT. Semen Indonesia Tuban needs to be improved.


Alkerwi A. 2014. Diet quality concept. Nutrition 30(6):613-618.

Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A, Ritchie K, Shipley MJ, Kivimaki M. 2011. Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: Results from the Whitehall II cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 94(1):247-253.

Amrin AP, Hardinsyah, Cesilia MD. 2013. Alternatif indeks gizi seimbang untuk penilaian mutu gizi konsumsi pangan pria dewasa Indonesia. J Gizi Pangan 8(3):167-174.

Ariawan I. 1998. Besar dan Metode Sampel pada Penelitian Kesehatan. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.

[AUSNUT] Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database 2011-2013. 2016. Australia: Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

Assmann KE, Lassale C, Galan P, Hercberg S, Kesse-Guyot E. 2014. Dietary quality and 6-year anthropometric changes in a sample of French middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Plos One 9(2):87083.

Baik I, Shin C. 2008. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87(5):1455-63.

Becerra TN, Babio N, Martínez GMÁ, Corella D, Estruch R, Ros E, Fitó M, Serra Majem L, Salaverria I, Lamuela RMR, Lapetra J, Gómez EG, Fiol M, Toledo E, Sorlí JV, Pedret LMR, Salas-Salvadó J. 2016. Replacing red meat and processed red meat for white meat, fish, legumes or eggs is associated with lower risk of incidence of metabolic syndrome. Clin Nutr 35(6):1442-1449.

Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Rimm EB, Hu FB, McCullough ML, Wang M, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 2012. Alternative dietary indices both strongly predict risk of chronic disease. J Nutr 142(6):1009-1018.

Croce N, Bracci M, Ceccarelli G, Barbadoro P, Prospero E, Santarellia L. 2007. Body mass index in shift workers: relation to diet and physical activity. G Ital Med Lav Ergon29(3 Suppl):488-489.

De Koning L, Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Hu FB. 2011. Diet quality scores and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 34(5):1150-1156.

Demersay TC, Marniche DA, Arfsten J, Egli L, Gaudichon C, Karagounis LG, Tome D. 2017. A systematic review of the effects of plant compared with animal protein sources on features of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 147(3):281-292.

Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiager M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willet WC. 2006. Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 84(6):1489-1497.
Geaney F, Fitzgerald S, Harrington JM, Kelly C, Greiner BA, Perry IJ. 2015. Nutrition knowledge, diet quality and hypertension in a working population. Prev Med Rep 2(1):105-113.

Gibson RS. 2005. Principles of Nutritional Assessment 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York.

Judprasong K, Puwastien P, Nitithamyong A, Sridonpai P, Somjai A. 2015. Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University. Thai Food Composition Database.

[Kemenkes RI] Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2010. Laporan Riset Kesehatan Dasar Tahun 2010. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

[Kemenkes RI] Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2014a. Laporan Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

[Kemenkes RI] Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2014b. Pedoman Gizi Seim-bang. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

[Kemenkes RI] Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2014c. Riskesdas dalam Angka Provinsi Jawa Timur 2013. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K. 1995. The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95(10):1103-1108.

Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després JP, Willett WC, Hu FB. 2010. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 33(11):2477-2483.

Micha R, Mozaffarian D. 2009. Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5(6):335-344.

Nurjanah F, Roosita K. 2015. Gaya hidup dan kejadian sindrom metabolik pada karyawan laki-laki berstatus gizi obes di PT. Indocement Citeureup. J Gizi Pangan 10(1):17-24.

Oken E, Belfort MB. 2010. Fish, fish oil, and pregnancy. JAMA 304(15):1717-1718.

Perdana SM, Hardinsyah, Damayanthi E. 2014. Alternatif indeks gizi seimbang untuk penilaian mutu gizi konsumsi pangan wanita dewasa Indonesia. J Gizi Pangan 9(1):43-50.

Popkin BM. 2006. Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 84(2):289-98.

Rossaa CEB, Caramoria PRA, Manfroia WC. 2012. Metabolic syndrome in workers in a university hospital. Rev Port Cardiol 31(10):629-636.

Sarno F, Jaime PC, Ferreira SRG, Monteiro CA. 2009. Sodium intake and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53(5): 608-616.

Sartika RAD. 2008. Pengaruh asam lemak jenuh, tidak jenuh dan asam lemak trans terhadap kesehatan. KESMAS 2(4):154-160.

Slavin JL, Lloyd B. 2012. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr 3(4):506-516.

Taechangam S, Pinitchun U, Pachotikarn C. 2008. Development of nutrition education tool: healthy eating index in Thailand. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17(1):365-367.

Takase H, Sugiura T, Kimura G, Ohte N, Dohi Y. 2015. Dietary sodium consumption predicts future blood pressure and incident hypertension in the Japanese normotensive general population. JAHA 4(8):1-7.

Van-Nielen M, Feskens EJ, Mensink M, Sluijs I, Molina E, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, B a l k a u B, Beulens JW, Boeing H. 2014. Dietary protein intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC InterAct Case Cohort Study. Diabetes Care 37(7):1854-

Wallin A, Orsini N, Forouhi NG, Wolk A. 2017. Fish consumption in relation to myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality among women and men with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study. Clin Nutr 12(1):1-7.

Waloya T, Rimbawan, Andarwulan N. 2013. Hubungan antara konsumsi pangan dan aktivitas fisik dengan kadar kolesterol darah pria dan wanita dewasa di Bogor. J Gizi Pangan 8(1): 9-16.

[WHO] World Health Organization. 2000. WHO/IOASO/IOTF: The Asia Pasific perspective: Redefining Obesity and Its Treatment. Australia: Health Communnication Australia.


Pramita Ariawati Putri (Primary Contact)
Dodik Briawan
Ikeu Ekayanti
PutriP. A., BriawanD., & EkayantiI. (2018). Application of alternate healthy eating index to assess diet quality in male workers. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan, 13(1), 39-46.

Article Details