WORKING MOTHER AND FAMILY ECONOMY RESILIENCE IN THE COVID-19 ERA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

  • Siti Nur Azizah UIN Sunan Kalijaga
  • Annisa Nur Salam Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University
Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, family economic resilience, ordinary least square, working mother

Abstract

Covid-19 pandemic, which occurred in early 2020, has resulted in more than 50 percent of households experiencing financial difficulties, especially those who rely on personal businesses. This study aims to analyze the effect of working mothers on family economic resilience during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study obtained the primary data by distributing questionnaires to 173 respondents using the purposive sampling technique. The approach used is quantitative with Ordinary Least Square (OLS) as the data analysis method. The dependent variable is family economic resilience, and the independent variable is female workers. The results showed that working women could support and contribute to their households in helping meet the daily needs of their families. Thus, working mothers have a positive effect on household economic resilience during the Covid-19 pandemic. For this reason, during the Covid-19 period, a wife's role is needed to contribute to the family economy so that the family's economic resilience remains stable. Furthermore, this research revealed the importance of the government's roles and stakeholders to provide facilities such as working capital for women, availability of employment opportunities for women, and work regulations that support women in balancing their dual roles.

Author Biographies

Siti Nur Azizah, UIN Sunan Kalijaga

Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University, Accreditation A

Annisa Nur Salam, Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University

Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University, Accreditation A

References

Afifi, T. D., Merrill, A. F., & Davis, S. (2016). The theory of resilience and relational load. Journal Of The International Association For Relationship Research, 23(4), 663–683. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/pere.12159.

Araújo, L. A. de, Veloso, C. F., Souza, M. de C., Azevedo, J. M. C. de, & Tarro, G. (2020). The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child growth and development: a systematic review. Jornal de Pediatria, 23(January), 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2020.08.008

Arsal, T., Basri, M., & Tono, S. (2017). Bakul: Contribution of rural women to family economy through informal sector activities. KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture, 9(1), 136–142. doi: 10.15294/komunitas.v9i1.8906

Asian Development Bank. (2020). The economic impact of the covid-19 outbreak on developing Asia (ADB Briefs No. 128). doi: 10.22617/BRF200096

Aziz, F. A., & Sholikha, A. F., & Ashari, I. (2017). Pengaruh wanita dalam ketahanan ekonomi keluarga studi kasus pada wanita penganyam kerajinan tikar pandan di Desa Pesahangan Cimanggu Cilacap. JPA, 18(2), 241–256. doi: 10.24090/jpa.v18i2.2017.pp241-256

Bagchi-Sen, S. (2010). The small and medium sized exporters’ problems : An empirical analysis of canadian the small and medium sized exporters ’ problems : An empirical analysis of Canadian manufacturers. Regional Studies, 33(3), 231–245. doi: 10.1080/00343409950082427

Baker, S. R., Farrokhnia, R. A., Meyer, S., Pagel, M., & Yannelis, C. (2020). How does household spending respond to an epidemic? Consumption during the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic (JEL No. D14, E21, G51 No. No. 26949). The Review of Asset Pricing Studies (Vol. 10). Cambridge. doi: 10.1093/rapstu/raaa009

Bank for International Settlements. (2016). Economic resilience: A financial perspective. Retrieved from https://www.bis.org/publ/othp27.htm

Bhana, A., & Bachoo, S. (2011). The determinants of family resilience among families in low-and middle-income contexts: a systematic literature review. South African Journal of Psychology, 41(2), 131–139. doi: 10.1177/008124631104100202

[BIS] Bank for International Settlements. (2016). Economic resilience: A financial perspective. Retrieved from https://www.bis.org/publ/othp27.htm.

Bonanno, G. A. (2008). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to Thrive after extremely aversive events?. American Psychologist, 59(1), 101–113. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20.

Botezat, A., & Pfeiffer, F. (2014). The impact of parents migration on the well-being of children left behind initial evidence from Romania (14 No. 14–029). Romania, RO: IZA Institute of Labor Economic. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2432946

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2016). Pembangunan Ketahanan Keluarga. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/news/2015/05/06/110/indeks-ketahanan-pangan.html.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2019). Keadaan Angkatan Kerja di Indonesia Februari 2019. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2019/05/31/a96ce41f72e59d5dfb1cad9f/keadaan-angkatan-kerja-di-indonesia-februari-2019.html.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). Angka Putus Sekolah (APTS). Retrieved from https://sirusa.bps.go.id/sirusa/index.php/indikator/12.

Bradley, J. M., & Hojjat, M. (2017). A model of resilience and marital satisfaction. Journal of Social Psychology, 157(5), 588–601. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2016.1254592

Brewer, M., & Gardiner, L. (2020). The initial impact of COVID-19 and policy responses on household incomes. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 36(S1), S187–S199. doi: 10.1093/oxrep/graa024

Case, A., Fertig, A., & Paxson, C. (2004). The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. Journal of Health Economics, 24(2), 365–389. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2004.09.008

Casmini. (2020). Read the reality of family resilience in facing pandemics Covid-19 in Indonesia. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(10), 4354–4365. Retrieved from http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/id/eprint/40395/.

Celik, B., Ozden, K., & Dane, S. (2020). The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Surgery of Cancer Patients. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science, 8(4), 51–56. Available Online at: www.jrmds.in eISSN No. 2347-2367: pISSN No. 2347-2545.

Cross, E. R., & Emanuel, L. (2008). Providing Inbuilt economic resilience options an obligation of comprehensive cancer care. Cancer, 113(12 SUPPL.), 3548–3555. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23943

Davies, J. J., & Gentile, D. A. (2012). Responses to children’s media use in families with and without siblings: A family development perspective. Family Relations, 61(3), 410–425. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2012.00703.x

De Haan, L., Hawley, D. R., & Deal, J. E. (2002). Operationalizing family resilience: A methodological strategy. American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(4), 275–291. doi: 10.1080/01926180290033439

Dentinger, E., & Clarkberg, M. (2002). Informal caregiving and retirement timing among men and women: gender and caregiving relationships in late midlife. Journal of Family Issues, 23(7), 857–879. doi: 10.1177/019251302236598

Dewi, P. M. (2012). Pastisipasi tenaga kerja perempuan dalam meningkatkan pendapatan keluarga. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, 5(2), 119–124. Retrieved from https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/jekt/article/view/1906

Dhingra, V., & Keswani, S. (2018). Impact of working mothers on their children’s development. Inovation The Research Concept, 3(3), 18–25. doi: 10.32622/ijrat.732019104

Donnelly, K., Twenge, J. M., Clark, M. A., Shaikh, S. K., Beiler-May, A., & Carter, N. T. (2016). Attitudes toward women’s work and family roles in the United States, 1976–2013. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(1), 41–54. doi: 10.1177/0361684315590774

Duflo, E. (2012). Women empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051–1079. doi: 10.1257/jel.50.4.1051

Faccio, F., Renzi, C., Giudice, A. V, Pravettoni, G., Tumori, I., & Paolo, G. (2018). Family resilience in the oncology setting: development of an integrative framework. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(3), 1–6. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00666

Fallah, B., Bergolo, M., Hashhash, A. A., Hattawy, M., & Saadeh, I. (2019). The effect of labor-demand shocks on women’s participation in the labor force: Evidence from Palestine. United Kingdom. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3410521

Feinberg, L., Reinhard, S. C., Houser, A., & Choula, R. (2011). Valuing the invaluable: 2011 update the growing contributions and costs of family caregiving. AARP Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/ppi/ltc/i51-caregiving.pdf.

Ghazi, S. R., Ali, R., Shahzad, S., Shahzada, G., & Nawaz, K. (2011). Socio-economic factors as a cause of children dropout at primary level. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 531–536. doi: 10.5901/mjssv2n3p531.

Ghozali, I. (2013). Aplikasi analisis multivariate dengan program IBM SPSS 21 update PLS regresi (7th ed.). Semarang, ID: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Ginanjar, A. S., Primasari, I., Rahmadini, R., & Astuti, R. W. (2020). Hubungan antara work-family conflict dan work-family balance dengan kepuasan pernikahan pada istri yang menjalani dual-earner family. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen, 13(2), 112–124. doi: 10.24156/jikk.2020.13.2.112

Hertz, R., Mattes, J., & Shook, A. (2020). When paid work invades the family: Single mothers in the covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Family Issues, 00(0), 1–27. doi: 10.1177/0192513X20961420

Hoque, M. M., Khanam, S. T., & Nobi, M. N. (2017). The effects of mothers ’ profession on their children ’ s academic performance : an econometric. Global Journal of HUman-Social Science: Economics, 17(2), 1–10. Retrieved from https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume17/1-The-Effects-of-Mothers-Profession

Hosna, A. U., Wahab, S. A., Hamid, M., Hasanat, M. W., Haque, A., Anum, K., & Kamruzzaman, M. (2020). Impact of mental pressure and coronavirus (Covid-19) on the work performance of working mothers of Bangladesh. American International Journal of Business Management (AIJBM), 3(12), 63–69. Retrieved from https://www.aijbm.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/K3126369.pdf

Huebener, M., Waights, S., Spiess, C. K., Siegel, N. A., & Wagner, G. G. (2021). Parental well-being in times of Covid-19 in Germany. Review of Economics of the Household, 19(1), 91–122. doi: 10.1007/s11150-020-09529-4

ILO & Gallup. (2017). Towards a better future for women and work: Voices of women and men. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/-publ/documents/publication/wcms_546256.pdf

Solihatin, I. R. (2017). Konsepsi Al-Qur’an tentang perempuan pekerja dalam mensejahterakan keluarga. Jurnal Harkat: Media Komunikasi Gender, 12(2), 78–91. doi: 10.15408/harkat.v13i1.7714

Julianto, D., & Utari, P. A. (2019). Analisa pengaruh tingkat pendidikan terhadap pendapatan individu di sumatera barat. Ikraith Ekonomika, 2(2), 122–131. https://journals.upi-yai.ac.id/index.php/ IKRAITH-EKONOMIKA/article/view/413

Kansiime, M. K., Tambo, J. A., Mugambi, I., Bundi, M., Kara, A., & Owuor, C. (2021). COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: Findings from a rapid assessment. World Development, 137, 105199. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105199

Karpman, M., Gonzalez, D., & Kenney, G. M. (2020). Parents are struggling to provide for their families during the pandemic. The Urban Institute. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/102254/parents-are-struggling-to-provide-for-their-families-during-the-pandemic_1.pdf.

Keefe, S. (2016). Women, work, and (re)marriage: Entrepreneurship among swahili women in Coastal Tanzania. Africa Today, 62(3), 111–131. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/article/610773/pdf.

[Kemendikbud] Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi Republik Indonesia. (2020). Statistik Pendidikan. Retrieved from http://statistik.data.kemdikbud.go.id/.

Krejcie, R. V, & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurment, 30, 607–610.

Kring, S. A. (2017). Gender in employment policies and programmes: What works for women employment? Working Paper No. 235. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/employment/Whatwedo/Publications/working-papers/WCMS _613536/lang--en/index.htm

Lei, L., Liu, F., & Hill, E. (2017). Labour migration and health of left-behind children in China. Journal of Development Studies, 54(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1080/00220388.2017.1283015.

[LIPI]. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. (2020). Dampak pandemi Covid-19 terhadap ketahanan pangan rumah tangga . Jakarta, ID: LIPI. Retrieved from https://ekonomi.lipi.go.id/public/images/publikasi/1619602983_Strategi_Kebijakan_Penanganan_Dampak.pdf

Lobo., K. B. & M. (2008). A conceptual review of family resilience factors. Journal of Family Nursing, 14(1), 33–55. doi: 10.1177/1074840707312237.

Martin, A., Markhvida, M., Hallegatte, S., & Walsh, B. (2020). Socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 on household consumption and poverty. Economics of Disasters and Climate Change, 4(4), 453–479. doi: 10.1007/s41885-020-00070-3

Masten, A. S. (2018). Resilience theory and research on children and families: Past, present, and promise. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 10(1), 12–31. doi: 10.1111/jftr.12255

Melis, M. (2017). Relevansi peran gender dan kontribusi ekonomi perempuan untuk mencapai falah dalam rumah tangga. An Nisa’a, 12(1), 65-76. Retrieved from http://jurnal.radenfatah.ac.id/index.php/annisa/article/view/1506

Mitra, R. S. (2020). Household finance during the covid-19 pandemic. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342003888_Household_Finance_During_the_COVID-19_Pandemic

Moen, P., & Yu, Y. (2000). Effective work/life strategies: Working couples, work conditions, gender, and life quality. Social Problems, 47(3), 291–326. https://doi.org/10.2307/3097233

Munandar, A. I., & Suryatman, A. (2019). Family resilience index in student: case study vocational high school in Bekasi. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Education, Purwokerto. Retrieved from https://eudl.eu/pdf/10.4108/eai.28-9-2019.2290988

Muttaqin, T., Wittek, R., Heyse, L., & Van Duijn, M. (2017). Why do children stay out of school in indonesia?. Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan: The Indonesian Journal of Development Planning, 1(2), 93-108. doi: 10.36574/jpp.v1i2.12

Muykim, C. (2020). COVID-19 : Socio-economic impacts. Cambodia Development Center, 2(3, 04 April), 1–19. Retrieved from https://cd-center.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/P124_20200404_V2IS3.pdf

Paxson, C., & Schady, N. (2007). Cognitive development among young children in Ecuador: The roles of wealth, health, and parenting. Journal of Human Resources, 42(1), 49–84. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.753548

Perdana, B. (2014). Partisipasi kerja perempuan dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan keluarga (studi kasus pada KUD Sumber Makmur Kecamatan Ngantang Kabupaten Malang 2013). Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasaiwa FEB, 2(2). Retrieved from https://jimfeb.ub.ac.id/index.php/jimfeb/article/view/1329

Prayogo, C. (Ed.). (2020, October 19). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 terhadap Perekonomian Dunia. Warta Ekonomi. Retrieved from www.wartaekonomi.co.id/read309848/dampak-pandemi-covid-19-terhadap-perekonomian-dunia-infografis.

Rani, I. D. A. P. W., & Aswitari, L. P. (2017). Analisis determinan pendapatan perempuan pedagang cenderamata di pasar seni Desa Adat Kuta Kabupaten Badung. E-Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan Unud, 8(5), 1033–1061. Retrieved from https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/eep/article/view/43685.

Rangvid, B. S. (2008) School composition effects in Denmark: Quantile regression evidence from PISA 2000. In Dustmann C., Fitzenberger B., Machin S. (eds) The Economics of Education and Training. Studies in Empirical Economics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7908-2022-5_9.

Riyadi, S. (2016). Analisis Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat partisipasi angkatan kerja wanita Daerah Tingkat 1 Jawa Timur. Ekuitas: Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Keuangan, 5(1), 32. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.24034/j25485024.y2001.v5.i1.1920.

Rosa, Y. (2016). Kebutuhan tipe hunian berdasarkan umur dan status kepala keluarga. Jurnal Pemukiman, 11(2), 88–99. Retrieved from http://jurnalpermukiman.pu.go.id/index.php/JP/article/view/6

Saleh, A. S., & Ndubisi, N. O. (2014). An evaluation of SME development in Malaysia. International Review of Business Research Papers V, 02(1), 1–14. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228869311_An_evaluation_of_SME_development_in_Malaysia.

Sawada, Y., & Sumulong, L. R. (2021). Macroeconomic impact of COVID-19 in developing Asia (No. 1251). Tokyo. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/publications/macroeconomic-impact-covid-19-developing-asia%0D.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill building aproach (4th ed.). New York, US: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Setiawan, T., Kasim, S., & Yusuf, B. (2020). Eksistensi pekerja perempuan (istri) pada sektor informal dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan keluarga: Studi Kelurahan Abeli Kecamatan Abeli Kota Kendari. Well-Being: Journal of Social Welfare, 1(1), 110–116. Retrieved from http://ojs.uho.ac.id/index.php/wellbeing/article/view/16530

Shahreza, D., & Lindiawatie. (2020). Ketahanan ekonomi keluarga di Depok pada masa pandemi Covid-19. Journal of Applied Business and Economics (JABE), 7(2), 148–161. Retrieved from https://journal.lppmunindra.ac.id/index.php/JABE/article/view/7487

Simon, M. A., Gunia, B., Martin, E. J., Foucar, C. E., Kundu, T., Ragas, D. M., & Emanuel, L. L. (2013). Path toward economic resilience for family caregivers: Mitigating household deprivation and the health care talent shortage at the same time. Gerontologist, 53(5), 861–873. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnt033

Sina, P. G. (2020). Ekonomi rumah tangga di era pandemi covid-19. Journal of management (SME’s), 12(2), 239–254. doi: 10.35508/jom.v12i2.269

Sinval, J., Sirgy, M. J., Lee, D. J., & Marôco, J. (2020). The quality of work life scale: validity evidence from brazil and portugal. Applied research in quality of life, 15(5), 1323–1351. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11482-019-09730-3

Stephiana, O., & Wisana, I. D. G. K. (2019). The mother’s role in child development: the effect of maternal employment on cognitive development. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 27(4), 2571–2583. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/I-Dewa-Gede-Karma-Wisana/publication/334748851.

Sunarti, E. (2006). Indikator keluarga sejahtera: Sejarah pengembangan, evaluasi, dan keberlanjutannya. Retrieved from https://repository.ipb.ac.id/jspui/handle/123456789/54504

Sunarti, E., Rizkillah, R., Hakim, F. A., Zakiya, N., & Damayanti, R. (2021). Manajemen sumber daya keluarga, konflik kerja-keluarga, dan tugas keluarga. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen, 14(1), 1–13. doi: 10.24156/jikk.202 1.1 4.1.1

Supriatna, E. (2020). Socio-economic impacts of the covid-19 pandemic: The case of Bandung City. Journal of Governance, 5(1), 61–70. doi: 10.31506/jog.v5i1.8041

Suryahadi, A., Izzati, R. A., & Suryadarma, D. (2020). Estimating the Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Poverty. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 1–33. doi: 10.1080/00074918.2020.1779390

Suryono, P., & Pitoyo, A. J. (2013). Kesesuaian tingkat pendidikan dan jenis pekerjaan pekerja di Pulau Jawa: Analisis data Sakernas tahun 2010. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia, 2(1), 59–68. Retreived from http://lib.geo.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/jbi/article/view/127

Susilawati, Falefi, R., & Purwoko, A. (2020). Impact of covid-19’s pandemic on the economy of Indonesia. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(2), 1147–1156. doi: 10.33258/birci.v3i2.954.

Susi Keefe. (2016). Women, Work, and (Re)Marriage: Entrepreneurship among Swahili Women in Coastal Tanzania. Africa Today, 62(3), 111–131.

[UNCTAD] United Nations Conference On Trade And Development. (2020). The Covid-19 Shock to Developing Countries : Towards a “ whatever it takes ” programme for the two-thirds. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files /official-document/gds_tdr2019_covid2 _en.pdf

Verma, A., & Negi, Y. S. (2020). Working women and motherhood – a review. Annals of Agri Bio Research, 25(1), 170–178. Retrieved from http://agribiop.com/working-women-and-motherhood-a-review/

Weinstein, M. C. (1996). Recommendations of the panel on cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 276(15), 1253. doi: 10.1001/jama.1996.03540150055

Wijayanti, U. T. (2021). Analisis faktor penyebab perceraian pada masa pandemi covid-19 di Kabupaten Banyumas. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga & Konsumen, 14(1), 14-26. doi: 10.24156/jikk.2021.14.1.14

Wulandari, A., Putri, A. K., & Yulia. (2019). Women working hours as a family economic stabilization: Study on pepper farmers in dellas village, air gegas sub disrtric, South Bangka Regency. In International Conference on Maritime and Archipelago (ICoMA 2018) Women (pp. 277–280). Atlantis Press. doi: 10.2991/icoma-18.2019.59

Yue, P., Gizem Korkmaz, A., & Zhou, H. (2020). Household financial decision making amidst the covid-19 pandemic. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 56(10), 2363–2377. doi: 10.1080/1540496x.2020.1784717

Yulianti, K., Denessen, E., & Droop, M. (2019). Indonesian parents’ involvement in their children’s education: A study in elementary schools in urban and rural Java, Indonesia. School Community Journal, 29(1), 253–278. Retrieved from https://www.adi.org/journal/2019ss/YuliantiSS2019.pdf

Published
2021-10-22
How to Cite
AzizahS. N., & SalamA. N. (2021). WORKING MOTHER AND FAMILY ECONOMY RESILIENCE IN THE COVID-19 ERA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA. Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga & Konsumen, 14(3), 203-215. https://doi.org/10.24156/jikk.2021.14.3.203