INTERNALISASI BIAYA EKSTERNAL SERTA ANALISIS KEBIJAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ENERGI PANAS BUMI SEBAGAI ENERGI ALTERNATIF
AbstractKebutuhan akan energi khususnya listrik di Indonesia diperkirakan akan meningkat setiap tahunnya. Supplyuntuk energi listrik tersebut mayoritas bersumber dari pembangkit listrik berbahan baku fosil (batubara, diesel, dan gas). Ketergantungan akan energi fosil akan menjadi permasalahan karenacadangan bahan baku yang dimilki sangat terbatas jumlahnya dan akan habis dalam jangka waktu tertentu serta menghasilkan emisi/ dampak negatif bagi lingkungan. Ancaman kelangkaan energi fosil akan berimplikasi pada peningkatan harga energi itu sendiri. Di sisi lain Indonesia memiliki potensi yang besar dalam energi terbarukan seperti panas bumi, namun sampai saat ini tingkat pemanfaatannya masih sangat kecil.Perlu adanya suatu kebijakan yang memperhitungkan berbagai aspek seperti ekonomi, sosial dan lingkungan dalam rangka mengembangkan energi listrik untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan dimasa mendatang.Hasil perhitungan untuk analisis kebijakan yang dilakukan menghasilkan kesimpulan pembangkit yang memiliki nilai tertinggi untuk memenuhi kriteria ekonomi, sosial, dan lingkungan adalah jenis pembangkit listrik tenaga panas bumi. Panas bumi memiliki keunggulan dari sisi ketersedian bahan baku, penyerapan tenag kerja, dan rendahnya tingkat emisi per output listrikyang dihasilkan jika dibandingkan dengan pembangkit listrik yang lainnya.
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