ESTIMASI NILAI PAJAK EMISI DAN KEBIJAKAN KENDARAAN UMUM BERBAHAN BAKAR BENSIN DI KOTA BOGOR
AbstractPeningkatan jumlah sarana transportasi di Kota Bogor menyebabkan padatnya lalu lintas di Kota Bogor. Kendaraan yang dominan dipakai adalah sepeda motor dan mobil penumpang, kendaraan bermotor jenis mobil barang dan bus. Meningkatnya jumlah kendaraan tersebut menyebabkan peningkatan konsumsi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM) dan berdampak pada lingkungan. Pencemaran udara yang terjadi di kota besar termasuk di Kota Bogor pada umumnya berasal dari sumber bergerak, yaitu sebesar 70 persen. Konsumsi bahan bakar bensin di Kota Bogor sebanyak 90 persen dari total konsumsi semua bahan bakar di Kota Bogor. Kendaraan umum yang berbahan bakar bensin di Kota Bogor mengkonsumsi bahan bakar bensin sebesar tiga persen. Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: 1) Mengestimasi nilai kerugian ekonomi akibat emisi kendaraan umum berbahan bakar bensin di Kota Bogor; 2) Mengestimasi nilai pajak emisi per zat pencemar yang dihasilkan oleh kendaraan umum berbahan bakar bensin di Kota Bogor; 3) Menganalisis persepsi masyarakat dan key person terhadap pencemaran udara dan pajak emisi kendaraan umum. Hasil estimasi nilai kerugian ekonomi akibat emisi kendaraan umum berbahan bakar bensin mencapai Rp 608.689.391 per tahun. Hasil estimasi nilai pajak emisi per zat pencemar yang dihasilkan oleh kendaraan umum berbahan bakar bensin adalah HC sebesar Rp 1,339/gram atau Rp 1.339/kg dan CO sebesar Rp 0,209/gram atau Rp 209/kg. Analisis pada persepsi pencemaran udara dan pajak emisi kendaraan umum adalah terdapat perbedaan persepsi di antara pengemudi angkutan kota, pengguna angkutan kota, dan pemerintah.
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