RISET DAN INOVASI TERUMBU KARANG DAN PROSES PEMILIHAN TEKNIK REHABILITASI: SEBUAH USULAN MENGHADAPI GANGGUAN ALAMI DAN ANTROPOGENIK KASUS DI KEPULAUAN SERIBU
AbstractRiset dan inovasi pada ekosistem terumbu karang sangat diperlukan dalam upaya menghadapi gangguan alami dan antropogenik yang merusak. Hal ini untuk memahami bagaimana prioritas intervensi manusia dalam usaha perbaikan melalui rehabilitasi atau restorasi. Berdasarkan informasi ilmiah bahwa dalam beberapa dekade terakhir dimana sudah banyak terumbu karang yang telah sangat terganggu, sehingga diperlukan terobosan riset dan inovasi. Beberapa riset dan inovasi yang dapat diinisiasi untuk mendukung program rehabilitasi adalah: (1) Pergeseran komunitas terumbu karang; (2) Perbaikan komunitas terumbu karang dari fenomena pemutihan massal, spesies invasive, dan penyakit karang lainnya; (3) Persediaan bibit transplan berdasarkan analisis konektivitas, resiliensi dan keragaman genetika Terumbu Karang untuk restorasi; (4) Interaksi antara koral, alga dan mikroba, serta implikasinya untuk ekologi dan bahan obat; (5) Makroekologi, fungsi ekosistem dan biogeografi; dan (6) Pembuatan pelayanan pemetaan ilmiah biodiversitas dan rehabilitasi/restorasi berbasis website. Sebagai contoh, ekosistem terumbu karang di Kepulauan Seribu yang terletak di utara Jakarta, merupakan lokasi yang sangat cocok untuk mempelajari tentang pengaruh alami dan antropogenik, dan bagaimana memberikan pemilihan terhadap teknik rehabilitasi yang sesuai. Teknik restorasi atau rehabilitasi (Misalnya: Ecoreef, Reefball, Rockfile, Artificial Reef, dan Transplantasi karang) sudah banyak dikembangkan di Indonesia. Teknik tersebut mempunyai kelebihan dan kekurangan dan tidak ada satu metodepun yang bisa memuaskan semua pihak dan tidak ada satu metodepun yang bisa diterapkan pada berbagai kondisi dan kesehatan terumbu karang. Dukungan riset dan inovasi terumbu karang akan memberikan peluang untuk partisipasi inklusif bagi seluruh komponen masyarakat untuk memelihara ekosistem terumbu karang di Kepulauan Seribu secara tepat guna.
Kata kunci: Transplantasi karang, rehabilitasi, restorasi, pemutihan masal, spesies invasive
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