ESTIMASI NILAI EKONOMI DAN EKSTERNALITAS NEGATIF PEMANFAATAN WADUK DARMA
Waduk Darma merupakan salah satu waduk yang penting di Jawa Barat dengan luas 425 ha. Waduk ini memberikan manfaat kepada perikanan, air irigasi, air baku PDAM dan pariwisata. Berbagai kegunaan waduk tersebut berpotensi menimbulkan ekternalitas di Waduk Darma. Eksternalitas yang dirasakan adalah adanya pertumbuhan eceng gondok yang cepat menyebar di permukaan perairan dan menyebabkan ekternalitas negatif, hal ini dapat diduga karena adanya pemberian pakan yang berlebih (over feeding) dari budidaya KJA.
Eksternalitas negatif tersebut berupa penurunan produksi perikanan, gangguan saluran irigasi, penyumbatan saluran PDAM, dan terganggunya perjalanan perahu wisata. Oleh karena itu, penting untuk mengkaji estimasi nilai manfaat dan nilai eksternalitas negatif dari pemanfaatan Waduk Darma tersebut. Untuk mengestimasi nilai ekonomi pemanfaatan menggunakan metode harga pasar (market price method), residual imputation approach (RIA/Water Rent), dan pendekatan Travel Cost Methode (TCM) atau biaya perjalanan individu. Untuk mengestimasi nilai kerugian eksternalitas menggunakan metode Change of Productivity (CoP) dan metode pendapatan yang hilang (Loss of Earning). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan total nilai manfaat langsung Waduk Darma adalah Rp.1.142.945.174.610/tahun, dan total nilai kerugian dari eksternalitas negatif adanya eceng gondok sebesar Rp.169.087.933.326/tahun.
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