ANALISIS KELEMBAGAAN DAN PERAN STAKEHOLDERS DALAM PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR NAFKAH RUMAHTANGGA PETANI SAWIT DI KALIMANTAN TENGAH
AbstractPerubahan peruntukan lahan yang semula hutan di Kalimantan Tengah menjadi perkebunan Kelapa Sawit, baik perkebunan rakyat (smallholders) maupun perkebunan besar negara ataupun perkebunan besar swasta terjadi secara besar-besaran. Ekspansi Kelapa Sawit membawa perubahan sosial-budaya dan ekonomi masyarakat setempat, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1) Mengidentifikasi peran kelembagaan dalam tata kelola Kelapa Sawit di Desa Beringin Agung Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur dan Desa Pendahara Kabupaten Katingan Kalimantan Tengah; dan (2) Menelaah kebijakan stakeholder dalam menghadapi perubahan struktur nafkah rumah tangga. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Beringin Agung Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur - merepresentasikan wilayah yang telah terkonversi Kelapa Sawit secara masiv oleh rumahtangga petani migran (Suku Jawa) dan di Desa Pendahara Kabupaten Katingan – merepresentasikan wilayah terkonversi Kelapa Sawit oleh petani lokal (Suku Dayak). Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan dua pendekatan, yaitu kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan analisis stakeholder. Pengaruh dan kepentingan stakeholders di lokasi penelitian mempunyai karakteristik berbeda antara Desa Pendahara di Kabupaten Katingan dengan Desa Beringin Agung di Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur. Di Desa Pendahara, terdapat 4 (empat) stakeholder yaitu Damang, Kelompok Tani, Pemerintah Desa dan UPTD Pertanian. Semenntara di Desa Beringin Agung 3 (tiga) stakeholder yang terlibat dalam tata kelola Kelapa Sawit yaitu Pemerintah Desa, Balai Penyuluhan Pertanian dan Koperasi. Stakeholder yang ada di Desa Pendahara, perlu mempersiapkan diri untuk bisa turut memberdayakan golongan masyarakat lapisan bawah. Dari segi struktur kelembagaan di Desa Beringin Agung dalam pengelolaan perkebunan kelapa sawit sudah lebih stabil dibandingkan dengan Desa Pendahara. Sistem yang ada terkait dengan pengelolaan lahan kelapa sawit juga sudah lebih kuat di Desa Beringin Agung.
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