Green tea leaves as a source of natural antioxidants has a huge potential to improve sausage quality from lamb meat, in line with an increase of people concern in functional food products. This study aimed to evaluate inclusion of green tea leaves (Camelia sinensis) powder (GTP) into lamb sausage on physicochemical properties, total microbes, oxidative stability, and sensory quality. Three lambs aged one year was slaughtered as sausage meat source. Incorporation of 0.0%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% GTP to lamb sausage during 0, 7, and 14 days of storage was conducted in a completely randomized design of ANOVA with five replications in each treatment. Few changes were observed on chemical and physical qualities by adding 1% GTP, particularly on protein and water holding capacity (WHC) (p<0.05), while moisture, fat, pH, and tenderness were not affected (p>0.05). Lipid oxidation and the number of total plate count (TPC) were reduced by 36%-40% and 31%-49%, respectively by the inclusion of 1% GTP during storage time (p<0.05). Adding GTP negatively affected the sensory quality of lamb sausage since the score of acceptability reduced in the group of sausages contained GTP although the scores for color, flavor, and odor were higher with GTP addition. The incorporation of GTP was effectively inhibiting bacterial growth and lipid oxidation in the lamb sausage. However, GTP was also ineffective at improving the sensory quality of the sausage.
AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington.
Alirezalu, K., Hesari, J., Nemati, Z., Munekata, P.E.S., Barba, F.J., & J.M. Lorenzo. 2019. Combined effect of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds during refrigerated storage of nitrite-free frankfurter-type sausage. Food Res. Int. 120: 839–850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.11.048
Aminzare, M., Tajik, H., Aliakbarlu, J., Hashemi, M., & M. Raeisi. 2018. Effect of cinnamon essential oil and grape seed extract as functional-natural additives in the production of cooked sausage-impact on microbiological, physicochemical, lipid oxidation and sensory aspects, and fate of inoculated Clostridium perfringens. J. Food Saf. 38: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12459
Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2015. Sosis. Standar Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Standard) 3020. Jakarta, Indonesia.
Bansal, S., Choudhary, S., Sharma, M., Kumar, S.S., Lohan, S., Bhardwaj, V., Syan, N., & S. Jyoti. 2013. Tea: A native source of antimicrobial agents. Food Res. Int. 53: 568–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.032
Bozkurt, H. 2006. Utilization of natural antioxidants: Green tea extract and Thymbra spicata oil in Turkish dry-fermented sausage. Meat Sci. 73: 442–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.01.005
Cai, L., Cao, A., Li, Y., Song, Z., Leng, L., & J. Li. 2015. The effects of essential oil treatment on the biogenic amines inhibition and quality preservation of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fillets. Food Control. 56: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.03.009
Chattopadhyay, K., Xavier, K.A.M., Layana, P., Balange, A.K., & B.B. Nayak. 2019. Chitosan hydrogel inclusion in fish mince based emulsion sausages: Effect of gel interaction on functional and physicochemical qualities. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 134: 1063–1069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.148
Feng, T., Ye, R., Zhuang, H., Rong, Z., Wang, Y. & Z. Jin. 2013. Physicochemical propeties and sensory evaluation of Mesona Blumes gum / rice starch mixed gels as fat-substituts in Chinese Cantonese-style sausage. J. Food Resour. 50(1): 85-93.
Fernández, M.V., Agüero, M.V., & R.J. Jagus. 2018. Green tea extract: A natural antimicrobial with great potential for controlling native microbiota, Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in fresh-cut beet leaves. J. Food Saf. 38: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12374
Franco, D., Rodríguez-Amado, I., Agregán, R., Munekata, P.E.S., Vázquez, J.A., Barba, F.J., & J.M. Lorenzo. 2018. Optimization of antioxidants extraction from peanut skin to prevent oxidative processes during soybean oil storage. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 88: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.09.027
Gai, F., Gasco, L., Ortoffi, M., Gonzáles-Rodríguez, A., & G. Parisi. 2014. Effects of green tea natural extract on quality parameters and lipid oxidation during storage of tench (Tinca tinca) fillets. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30: 64–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12427
Jayawardana, B.C., Warnasooriya, V.B., Thotawattage, G.H., Dharmasena, V.A.K.I., & R. Liyanage. 2019. Black and green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extracts as natural antioxidants in uncured pork sausages. J. Food Process. Preserv. 43: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13870
Jiang, J & Y.L. Xiong. 2016. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review. Meat Sci. 120: 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.04.005
Jongberg, S., Tørngren, M., & L. Skibsted. 2018. Dose-dependent effects of green tea or maté extracts on lipid and protein oxidation in brine-injected retail-packed pork chops. Medicines 5: 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010011
Kong, F & R.P. Singh. 2011. Advances in instrumental methods to determine food quality deterioration. Food and Beverage Stabiligy and Shelf Life. Pp. 381-404.
Listyarini, K., Jakaria, Uddin, M.J., & A. Gunawan. 2018. Association and expression of CYP2A6 and KIF12 genes related to lamb flavour and odour. Trop. Anim. Sci. J. 41(2): 100-107. https://doi.org/10.5498/tasj.2018.41.2.100
Lorenzo, J.M., Pateiro, M., Domínguez, R., Barba, F.J., Putnik, P., Kovačević, D.B., Shpigelman, A., Granato, D., & D. Franco. 2018. Berries extracts as natural antioxidants in meat products: A review. Food Res. Int. 106: 1095–1104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.12.005
Nowak, A., Czyzowska, A., Efenberger, M., & L. Krala. 2016. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products. Food Microbiol. 59: 142–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2016.06.004
Perumalla, A.V.S. & N.S. Hettiarachchy. 2011. Green tea and grape seed extracts - Potential applications in food safety and quality. Food Res. Int. 44: 827–839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.01.022
Qin, Y.Y., Yang, J.Y., Lu, H.B., Wang, S.S., Yang, J., Yang, X.C., Chai, M., Li, L., & J.X. Cao. 2013. Effect of chitosan film incorporated with tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork meat patties. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 61: 312–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.07.018
SAS Institute, Inc. 2008. SAS User’s Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, North Carolina.
Schilling, M.W., Pham, A.J., Williams, J.B., Xiong, Y.L., Dhowlaghar, N., Tolentino, A.C., & J.L. Silva. 2018. Changes in the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of fresh pork sausage containing varying combinations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and green tea (Camella sinensis L.) extracts during retail display. Meat Sci. 96: 453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.065
Shekar, T.C. & G. Anju. 2014. Antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scevenging method of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Leaves. Am. J. Ethnomed. 1(4): 244-249.
Silva, S.L.D., Amaral, J.T., Ribeiro, M., Sebastião, E.E., Vargas, C., Franzen, F.L., Schneider, G., Lorenzo, J.M., Fries, L.L.M., Cichoski, A.J., & P.C.B. Campagnol. 2018. Fat replacement by oleogel rich in oleic acid and its impact on the technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages. Meat sci. 149: 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.11.020
Simpson, C.A., & J.N. Sofos. 2009. Antimicrobial ingredients. In R. Tarté (Ed.). Ingredients in meat products: properties, functionality and applications. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 301–377.
Sulmiyati, Said, N.S., Fahrodi, D.U., Malaka, R. & F. Maruddin. 2019. The physicochemical, microbiology, and sensory characteristics of kefir goat milk with different levels of kefir grain. Trop. Anim. Sci. J. 42(2): 152-158. https://doi.org/10/5398/tasj/2019.42.2.152
Sun, Q., Zhao, X., Chen, H., Zhang, C., & B. Kong. 2018. Impact of spice extracts on the formation of biogenic amines and the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of dry sausage. Food Control. 92: 190–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.002
Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J., & J.A. Pérez-Álvarez. 2010. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella. Meat Sci. 85: 568–576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.03.007
Wang, X., Xu, M., Cheng, J., Zhang, W., Liu, X., & P. Zhou. 2019. Effect of Flammulina velutipes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Cantonese sausages. Meat Sci. 154: 22–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.04.003
Warner, R. 2014. Measurement of water-holding capacity and color: objective and subjective. Encycl. Meat Sci. 2: 164-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384731-7.00210-5
Yang, C.S., & J.M. Landau. 2000. Effects of tea consumption on nutrition and health. J. Nutr. 130: 2409–2412.
Zhong, R.Z., Li, H.Y., Fang, Y., Sun, H.X., & D.W. Zhou. 2015. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus. Meat Sci. 105: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.003
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.